01. How is glass made? / 玻璃是怎么制成的?   普通玻璃的成分主要是二氧化硅(砂子),碳酸钙(石灰石),碳酸钠(纯碱)加在一起,于高温1700摄氏度下熔融后冷却而形成。  Glass is made by melting together several minerals at very high temperature. Silica in the form of sand is the main ingredient and this is combined with soda ash and limestone and melted in a furnace at temperature of 1700C.

01. How is glass made? / 玻璃是怎么制成的?

普通玻璃的成分主要是二氧化硅(砂子),碳酸钙(石灰石),碳酸钠(纯碱)加在一起,于高温1700摄氏度下熔融后冷却而形成。

Glass is made by melting together several minerals at very high temperature. Silica in the form of sand is the main ingredient and this is combined with soda ash and limestone and melted in a furnace at temperature of 1700C.

02. Why we named our page tuì? / 为什么取名退火集?   退火,是玻璃制作工艺中最为重要的环节。不论什么样的制作方式,都需要将玻璃的温度缓慢的由高降低。消除因为温度,厚度不均导致的应力(stress)。如果没有这一个环节,或者降温过快,玻璃就会承受不了一点点外界温度变化。最终碎成渣炸裂给你看。玻璃如此,人也如是。欲速则不达。太过急功近利追求表面光鲜总是伴随着负面的影响。取名退火,也是想时刻提醒自己以平常心待人接物。退一步海阔天空。  "tuì" means annealing in Chinese. Annealing is a process of slowly cooling hot glass to relieve internal stresses after it was formed. Glass which has not been annealed is liable to crack or shatter when subjected to a relatively small temperature change or mechanical shock. “More haste, less speed", same concept for life. When we are in a world full of people who are eager for instant benefits, it's always good to step back and slow your pace. A little something goes a long way. :-)

02. Why we named our page tuì? / 为什么取名退火集?

退火,是玻璃制作工艺中最为重要的环节。不论什么样的制作方式,都需要将玻璃的温度缓慢的由高降低。消除因为温度,厚度不均导致的应力(stress)。如果没有这一个环节,或者降温过快,玻璃就会承受不了一点点外界温度变化。最终碎成渣炸裂给你看。玻璃如此,人也如是。欲速则不达。太过急功近利追求表面光鲜总是伴随着负面的影响。取名退火,也是想时刻提醒自己以平常心待人接物。退一步海阔天空。

"tuì" means annealing in Chinese. Annealing is a process of slowly cooling hot glass to relieve internal stresses after it was formed. Glass which has not been annealed is liable to crack or shatter when subjected to a relatively small temperature change or mechanical shock. “More haste, less speed", same concept for life. When we are in a world full of people who are eager for instant benefits, it's always good to step back and slow your pace. A little something goes a long way. :-)

03.    工具一,Jack与Parchoffi (Pacioffis) Jack是西方玻璃吹制历史中最重要的整形工具之一。形状有点像发簪。它的刃偏扁,握紧时是完全平行的。除了基本款之外还有很多种形态(比如手柄的尺寸,刃的厚度,长度,形状变化等等),以用于不同器形的整形。因为玻璃在高温状态下呈类似于糖浆的“膏”状,所以Jack便是代替了手在“触摸”高温下的玻璃。主要用途为夹颈,立型,和开口。 Parchoffi (Pacioffis) 则是另一种形态的Jack。购买的时候单独买手柄,然后配石磨或是樱桃木的刃。刃为规整的圆柱体,很温和不易留工具的痕迹(tool/jack marks),主要用于整形多曲线的器形。  Tools 01. Jack & Parchoffi (Pacioffis) Jack: A hairpin shaped tool that springs open and when closed has long blades that are parallel about 12-15" long used for shaping glass. The blades get the most use: closing in the narrow necks of the piece on the pipe and working the opening lips. Blades may be nearly knife edged or rounded. Parchoffi (Pacioffis): Graphite or wooden tipped jacks used to open pieces without leaving Jack marks on the glass. They are most useful tools when smooth curves and graceful transactions are objective.

03. 

工具一,Jack与Parchoffi (Pacioffis)
Jack是西方玻璃吹制历史中最重要的整形工具之一。形状有点像发簪。它的刃偏扁,握紧时是完全平行的。除了基本款之外还有很多种形态(比如手柄的尺寸,刃的厚度,长度,形状变化等等),以用于不同器形的整形。因为玻璃在高温状态下呈类似于糖浆的“膏”状,所以Jack便是代替了手在“触摸”高温下的玻璃。主要用途为夹颈,立型,和开口。
Parchoffi (Pacioffis) 则是另一种形态的Jack。购买的时候单独买手柄,然后配石磨或是樱桃木的刃。刃为规整的圆柱体,很温和不易留工具的痕迹(tool/jack marks),主要用于整形多曲线的器形。

Tools 01. Jack & Parchoffi (Pacioffis)
Jack: A hairpin shaped tool that springs open and when closed has long blades that are parallel about 12-15" long used for shaping glass. The blades get the most use: closing in the narrow necks of the piece on the pipe and working the opening lips. Blades may be nearly knife edged or rounded.
Parchoffi (Pacioffis): Graphite or wooden tipped jacks used to open pieces without leaving Jack marks on the glass. They are most useful tools when smooth curves and graceful transactions are objective.

04.    工具二,Tweezer 玻璃吹制必备工具二!直译过来就是大镊子-简直就是小天使一样的存在!可以戳可以揪可以拧可以滴水可以拉丝儿,总之就是手的延长机理的表达,想做什么做什么似爪牙似魔鬼的步伐!头部主要分平头和鸟嘴头两种。平的更适于夹和揪,同时中间若隐若现的缝隙可以存少量的水,在转接玻璃的时候滴水在Jack Line*或者punty*上,只需要轻轻一敲就会断开,非常重要。鸟嘴型因为很尖利接触面积小,所以如果玻璃取料的时候不小心碰了杂质或者遇到气泡,可以用它把杂质迅速揪出来清理,效果简直就是立竿见影快狠准。(今天染了头发有点嗨文风突变请多包含…) *关于Jack line和Punty会在后面慢慢讲到。  Tool02. Tweezer Tweezers are a pair of metal squeezing tools with pointed tips. The tool is used to grasp and stretch glass. Commercial glass tweezers have an inside curve so when closed more water can be held between the tips for chilling the Jack line. They also have a bird beak design which are very handy for picking up things from the glass. 

04. 

工具二,Tweezer
玻璃吹制必备工具二!直译过来就是大镊子-简直就是小天使一样的存在!可以戳可以揪可以拧可以滴水可以拉丝儿,总之就是手的延长机理的表达,想做什么做什么似爪牙似魔鬼的步伐!头部主要分平头和鸟嘴头两种。平的更适于夹和揪,同时中间若隐若现的缝隙可以存少量的水,在转接玻璃的时候滴水在Jack Line*或者punty*上,只需要轻轻一敲就会断开,非常重要。鸟嘴型因为很尖利接触面积小,所以如果玻璃取料的时候不小心碰了杂质或者遇到气泡,可以用它把杂质迅速揪出来清理,效果简直就是立竿见影快狠准。(今天染了头发有点嗨文风突变请多包含…) *关于Jack line和Punty会在后面慢慢讲到。

Tool02. Tweezer
Tweezers are a pair of metal squeezing tools with pointed tips. The tool is used to grasp and stretch glass. Commercial glass tweezers have an inside curve so when closed more water can be held between the tips for chilling the Jack line. They also have a bird beak design which are very handy for picking up things from the glass. 

05.    工具三,Diamond Shears  因为这个工具张开的时候形状像钻石,所以就起了个这样直观的名字。在吹制工具里,它承担了很多“抓”和“移动”的动作。前端的弧型可以轻松的夹住各种粗细不一的吹管或吹杆,以保持在挪动时双手的稳定性。同时可以完成很多与助手相配合的动作。比如裹料(如下方图示),以及后面会提到的Bits working。最右侧的是波西米亚传统款,可以看到它没有前段“抓”吹管的弧型设计。  Tools 03. Diamond Shears Diamond shears are multi-purpose shears. The inside has a diamond shaped cutting area for cutting off round shaped additions. The ends of blades have a curved section that does not have a cutting edge and is designed for holding and moving pipes and punties. On the very right is the Czech diamond shear. It's a great tool from Bohemia tradition. No pipe grabber to get in the way.

05. 

工具三,Diamond Shears

因为这个工具张开的时候形状像钻石,所以就起了个这样直观的名字。在吹制工具里,它承担了很多“抓”和“移动”的动作。前端的弧型可以轻松的夹住各种粗细不一的吹管或吹杆,以保持在挪动时双手的稳定性。同时可以完成很多与助手相配合的动作。比如裹料(如下方图示),以及后面会提到的Bits working。最右侧的是波西米亚传统款,可以看到它没有前段“抓”吹管的弧型设计。

Tools 03. Diamond Shears
Diamond shears are multi-purpose shears. The inside has a diamond shaped cutting area for cutting off round shaped additions. The ends of blades have a curved section that does not have a cutting edge and is designed for holding and moving pipes and punties. On the very right is the Czech diamond shear. It's a great tool from Bohemia tradition. No pipe grabber to get in the way.

06.    工具四,Shears 各种型号的剪子。用途根据剪子头部的长短而异。主要用于“修”和“剪”。左侧最短小的是cup shear,适用于精致小巧的bits working和小型吹制作品修口。中间的是trim shear,一个比较通用的尺寸,人人必备。最右侧的是casting shear / bubble shear,适用于大型玻璃作品修剪以及在热铸(hot casting)时一次性减去铁勺边沿上流下来的热玻璃。在修剪的过程中一定要保持玻璃是非常热的状态,切记不能剪已经“冷”掉的玻璃,否则会很快损伤刀刃减短工具的使用寿命。  Tool 04. Shears Straight shears are a forged metal tool used to cut, trim and shape hot glass. The cup shear on the left is intended for use on intricate works where chomping through heavy material is not an issue. Ideal for stemware and other fine cutting duties. The trim shear in the middle is the all-purpose utility cutter, and everybody needs a pair! Casting and bubble shears on the right are great for whacking through large gathers and solid work in short order. It should be noted that most glass blowing shears will not fare well against cold glass, because glass is much harder than most metals. Cutting glass that has begun to solidify can destroy the shear edges very quickly.

06. 

工具四,Shears
各种型号的剪子。用途根据剪子头部的长短而异。主要用于“修”和“剪”。左侧最短小的是cup shear,适用于精致小巧的bits working和小型吹制作品修口。中间的是trim shear,一个比较通用的尺寸,人人必备。最右侧的是casting shear / bubble shear,适用于大型玻璃作品修剪以及在热铸(hot casting)时一次性减去铁勺边沿上流下来的热玻璃。在修剪的过程中一定要保持玻璃是非常热的状态,切记不能剪已经“冷”掉的玻璃,否则会很快损伤刀刃减短工具的使用寿命。

Tool 04. Shears
Straight shears are a forged metal tool used to cut, trim and shape hot glass. The cup shear on the left is intended for use on intricate works where chomping through heavy material is not an issue. Ideal for stemware and other fine cutting duties. The trim shear in the middle is the all-purpose utility cutter, and everybody needs a pair! Casting and bubble shears on the right are great for whacking through large gathers and solid work in short order. It should be noted that most glass blowing shears will not fare well against cold glass, because glass is much harder than most metals. Cutting glass that has begun to solidify can destroy the shear edges very quickly.

08.    工具六,Sophietta / Puffer 圆锥型的吹气工具。圆锥的头部分有多种直径尺寸,可以完全贴合在不同大小开口的玻璃器上。杆部中空,用于吹气。在使用过程中,L型可以吹制者自己完成向内吹气的动作,一字型则需要助手帮助。Sophi主要用于转接到实心吹杆后反方向向器皿口内吹气使玻璃壁膨胀起来,一来可以使壁变得轻薄,二来也节省了开口工作时长。有时也会对准某些局部吹气,起到局部冷却玻璃温度的作用。  Tool 06. Sophietta / Puffer A tool used as a puffer to further inflate a vessel after it has been removed from the blowpipe and is attached to the pontil. It consists of a curved metal tube attached to a conical nozzle. The glass blower reheats the vessel, inserts the nozzle into its month so that the aperture is blocked, and then inflates the vessel by blowing through the tube.

08. 

工具六,Sophietta / Puffer
圆锥型的吹气工具。圆锥的头部分有多种直径尺寸,可以完全贴合在不同大小开口的玻璃器上。杆部中空,用于吹气。在使用过程中,L型可以吹制者自己完成向内吹气的动作,一字型则需要助手帮助。Sophi主要用于转接到实心吹杆后反方向向器皿口内吹气使玻璃壁膨胀起来,一来可以使壁变得轻薄,二来也节省了开口工作时长。有时也会对准某些局部吹气,起到局部冷却玻璃温度的作用。

Tool 06. Sophietta / Puffer
A tool used as a puffer to further inflate a vessel after it has been removed from the blowpipe and is attached to the pontil. It consists of a curved metal tube attached to a conical nozzle. The glass blower reheats the vessel, inserts the nozzle into its month so that the aperture is blocked, and then inflates the vessel by blowing through the tube.

09.   工具七, Wooden Paddle 樱桃木做的木头板。主要用于将吹制器型底部修平整。同时在协助吹制者制作体量较大的作品时,助手可以将木板挡在其手腕,胳膊等部位防止烫伤。在木材的选用上,多为樱桃木等果木,这类木材善于保持湿度,不易干裂。  Tool 07. Wooden Paddle Wooden Paddles are like a handheld marvel used by glass blowers to gentle smooth and flatten the hot glass. Wood absorbs less heat than metal or graphite. A common function of the paddle is to finish shaping the bottom of the glass vessel prior to transferring to a punty. Wooden paddles are also used by the assistant to shield the glass blower's arm, hand, and side from heat radiating from the glass work while shaping at the bench, especially with larger work.

09.

工具七, Wooden Paddle
樱桃木做的木头板。主要用于将吹制器型底部修平整。同时在协助吹制者制作体量较大的作品时,助手可以将木板挡在其手腕,胳膊等部位防止烫伤。在木材的选用上,多为樱桃木等果木,这类木材善于保持湿度,不易干裂。

Tool 07. Wooden Paddle
Wooden Paddles are like a handheld marvel used by glass blowers to gentle smooth and flatten the hot glass. Wood absorbs less heat than metal or graphite. A common function of the paddle is to finish shaping the bottom of the glass vessel prior to transferring to a punty. Wooden paddles are also used by the assistant to shield the glass blower's arm, hand, and side from heat radiating from the glass work while shaping at the bench, especially with larger work.

10.    工具八, 不同的Paddles 跟上期类似,吹制工具还有更多整型用的板型工具。但这次介绍的跟木制相比尺寸大多偏小,适于手持。最左边的刃部偏薄,很轻便,主要用于整型bits(很小量的取料,多用于装饰)。中间两个是不同尺寸的Tagliol,简称“Tag”。刃部通常一侧圆一侧尖,专门用于热塑时对大体量的玻璃进行塑形。最右侧为石墨板,用途跟第一个类似。优点是石墨比较温和不会吸走太多玻璃上的热量,缺点则是不禁造太脆弱,很容易断裂,需要经常更换。  Tools 08. Different Paddles On the left is the color paddle, which is great for shaping bits and mashing color into local areas. A good accessory for folks working in production situation. The two middle ones are called tagliol. They are ideal for sculpting solid mass areas without substantially cooling the surface. To the right, is the graphite paddle. Sometimes you need the superior heat dissipation of our graphite paddle. Because graphite is famously brittle, the blade is replaceable.

10. 

工具八, 不同的Paddles
跟上期类似,吹制工具还有更多整型用的板型工具。但这次介绍的跟木制相比尺寸大多偏小,适于手持。最左边的刃部偏薄,很轻便,主要用于整型bits(很小量的取料,多用于装饰)。中间两个是不同尺寸的Tagliol,简称“Tag”。刃部通常一侧圆一侧尖,专门用于热塑时对大体量的玻璃进行塑形。最右侧为石墨板,用途跟第一个类似。优点是石墨比较温和不会吸走太多玻璃上的热量,缺点则是不禁造太脆弱,很容易断裂,需要经常更换。

Tools 08. Different Paddles
On the left is the color paddle, which is great for shaping bits and mashing color into local areas. A good accessory for folks working in production situation. The two middle ones are called tagliol. They are ideal for sculpting solid mass areas without substantially cooling the surface. To the right, is the graphite paddle. Sometimes you need the superior heat dissipation of our graphite paddle. Because graphite is famously brittle, the blade is replaceable.

11.    工具九,湿报纸 湿报纸是所有吹制工具里最亲民的产品!不用花钱随手可得才是接地气儿的好工具!一般会用两层到五层整开报纸,最终折成三折再插在一起固定,大小因人而异,以贴合手型优先。黑白报纸为最优,因为彩色油墨燃烧后的化学成分吸入身体对健康不好。插好后用剪刀将四角减去,这样第一增加柔韧度第二也利于蒸汽从四角排出。每次使用前要浸湿并且在工作过程中要适量加水保持报纸湿度。在美国吹玻璃的人最爱用的报纸就是纽约时报,良心油墨与纸张,在反复浸湿和燃烧后也不会起纸浆和散落。所以很好奇国内用的话哪家报纸最好呢~  Tools 09. Paper pad Used for shaping glass when formed, wetted and held in hand, to replace a marvel, mold or block. Most often made from 2-5 sheets of full page newspaper, folded in thirds, then the long ends are tucked into each other and the corners cut for flexibility and drainage. The result is flattened and water soaked then drained just before use. The water keeps the paper from burning and the shape is controlled by the shape of the hand. The New York Times is legendary for being the best newspaper for working glass. "Bad" paper turns to pulp when wet, while "good" paper retains its shape and layers.

11. 

工具九,湿报纸
湿报纸是所有吹制工具里最亲民的产品!不用花钱随手可得才是接地气儿的好工具!一般会用两层到五层整开报纸,最终折成三折再插在一起固定,大小因人而异,以贴合手型优先。黑白报纸为最优,因为彩色油墨燃烧后的化学成分吸入身体对健康不好。插好后用剪刀将四角减去,这样第一增加柔韧度第二也利于蒸汽从四角排出。每次使用前要浸湿并且在工作过程中要适量加水保持报纸湿度。在美国吹玻璃的人最爱用的报纸就是纽约时报,良心油墨与纸张,在反复浸湿和燃烧后也不会起纸浆和散落。所以很好奇国内用的话哪家报纸最好呢~

Tools 09. Paper pad
Used for shaping glass when formed, wetted and held in hand, to replace a marvel, mold or block. Most often made from 2-5 sheets of full page newspaper, folded in thirds, then the long ends are tucked into each other and the corners cut for flexibility and drainage. The result is flattened and water soaked then drained just before use. The water keeps the paper from burning and the shape is controlled by the shape of the hand. The New York Times is legendary for being the best newspaper for working glass. "Bad" paper turns to pulp when wet, while "good" paper retains its shape and layers.

12.    工具十,木勺 木勺也是整形工具之一。大多由樱桃木制成,也有少许是梨木或苹果木等果木制成。此类木材易保持水份,比较耐烧,使用寿命较长。木勺一般用于取料之后的整形,可以很快速的将热玻璃整形成“子弹”的形状,以便于后续操作。为防住木材开裂,木勺需要一直浸泡在水中。勺内因燃烧产生的炭层可以有助于玻璃整形的过程更加平滑。  Took 10. Blocks Blocks are chunks of fruit wood, most commonly cherry but also pear and apple, which are carved to a shape useful in forming glass and then soaked in water until waterlogged. The steam from the water and the carbon that forms on the surface makes a durable tool to produce smooth glass. The blocks are kept wet all the times to inhibit burning when in contact with hot glass and to prevent the cracking and warping that can occur with drying out.

12. 

工具十,木勺
木勺也是整形工具之一。大多由樱桃木制成,也有少许是梨木或苹果木等果木制成。此类木材易保持水份,比较耐烧,使用寿命较长。木勺一般用于取料之后的整形,可以很快速的将热玻璃整形成“子弹”的形状,以便于后续操作。为防住木材开裂,木勺需要一直浸泡在水中。勺内因燃烧产生的炭层可以有助于玻璃整形的过程更加平滑。

Took 10. Blocks
Blocks are chunks of fruit wood, most commonly cherry but also pear and apple, which are carved to a shape useful in forming glass and then soaked in water until waterlogged. The steam from the water and the carbon that forms on the surface makes a durable tool to produce smooth glass. The blocks are kept wet all the times to inhibit burning when in contact with hot glass and to prevent the cracking and warping that can occur with drying out.

13.    工具十一,蜂蜡 虽然蜂蜡不算是名副其实的工具,不过在操作bench上是很重要的一个成员。就像提琴的琴弓需要用松香一样,蜂蜡仅用于润滑Jacks,这样才不会在加工玻璃时有刺耳的吱吱声,操作起来也更加流畅~其他工具如果粘了蜂蜡会在玻璃上打滑反而无法操作,所以如果粘上了蜡请立即清理干净。  Tool 11. Bees wax Wax is used to lubricate the jacks only. You'll know when your jacks need wax - they will start to squeak when you use them on a piece!

13. 

工具十一,蜂蜡
虽然蜂蜡不算是名副其实的工具,不过在操作bench上是很重要的一个成员。就像提琴的琴弓需要用松香一样,蜂蜡仅用于润滑Jacks,这样才不会在加工玻璃时有刺耳的吱吱声,操作起来也更加流畅~其他工具如果粘了蜂蜡会在玻璃上打滑反而无法操作,所以如果粘上了蜡请立即清理干净。

Tool 11. Bees wax
Wax is used to lubricate the jacks only. You'll know when your jacks need wax - they will start to squeak when you use them on a piece!

14.    工具十二,软木板 这又是一个不知道怎么翻译名字的工具,因为接触玻璃的部分为软木,所以就暂且叫它软木板吧。它的主要用途为挤压玻璃,将球体内的空气从吹管另一侧压出去,这样整个器皿就会变扁。挤压时要双手不停打圈均匀用力接触玻璃表面才会平整,或者也可以加热局部再挤压。总之扁扁的器皿总让我想起以前冬日揣在怀里的酒壶,文邹邹的。  Tool12. Cork Paddle Soft way to message hot glass for flattening or indenting sides of blown piece. Unlike most thin paddles, these have thick round or square pads of cork on the surface. When flattening, both pads have to be pressed evenly and keep circling the whole surface, to get a nice and flat vessel.

14. 

工具十二,软木板
这又是一个不知道怎么翻译名字的工具,因为接触玻璃的部分为软木,所以就暂且叫它软木板吧。它的主要用途为挤压玻璃,将球体内的空气从吹管另一侧压出去,这样整个器皿就会变扁。挤压时要双手不停打圈均匀用力接触玻璃表面才会平整,或者也可以加热局部再挤压。总之扁扁的器皿总让我想起以前冬日揣在怀里的酒壶,文邹邹的。

Tool12. Cork Paddle
Soft way to message hot glass for flattening or indenting sides of blown piece. Unlike most thin paddles, these have thick round or square pads of cork on the surface. When flattening, both pads have to be pressed evenly and keep circling the whole surface, to get a nice and flat vessel.

15.   工具十三,纹理夹板 跟tweezer几乎一样只是在前端加了各种形状和纹理的夹板。用于给玻璃的表面添加不同的装饰纹样~通常的做法是用夹板将热玻璃加紧挤压,随之纹路就会留在表面,但是注意夹后不能反复回热太多次,不然纹路会随着加热逐渐消失。  Tool13. Crimps A tweezer like tool with metal pads on the ends that have a pattern. The crimps are for adding decorative elements to glass. They are available with various patterns and textures. Hot bits of glass are squeezed between the texture surface of this tool, leaving patterned indentations.

15.

工具十三,纹理夹板
跟tweezer几乎一样只是在前端加了各种形状和纹理的夹板。用于给玻璃的表面添加不同的装饰纹样~通常的做法是用夹板将热玻璃加紧挤压,随之纹路就会留在表面,但是注意夹后不能反复回热太多次,不然纹路会随着加热逐渐消失。

Tool13. Crimps
A tweezer like tool with metal pads on the ends that have a pattern. The crimps are for adding decorative elements to glass. They are available with various patterns and textures. Hot bits of glass are squeezed between the texture surface of this tool, leaving patterned indentations.

16.   工具十四,图章 跟上一幅介绍的夹板类似,这个工具是像印章一样的存在!趁着玻璃热的时候压上去,就会把图案印在表面了~触感有点类似蜡封。可以根据自己需求定制各种图案,不过在所有prunt里最著名的就要数蓝莓图章了,德国历史上曾经非常流行的款式top1,而英国则是走草莓少女心路线,关于此点以后再慢慢吐槽。  Tool14. Prunts Basically prunts are drops of molten glass applied freehand or impressed with a tool on glass vessels. Prunts were of various shaped and applied in patterns or haphazardly, usually to the lower two-thirds of the body. The German prunts, considered exceptional decorations, were frequently referred to as raspberries, while the wider and flatter English versions were called strawberries.

16.

工具十四,图章
跟上一幅介绍的夹板类似,这个工具是像印章一样的存在!趁着玻璃热的时候压上去,就会把图案印在表面了~触感有点类似蜡封。可以根据自己需求定制各种图案,不过在所有prunt里最著名的就要数蓝莓图章了,德国历史上曾经非常流行的款式top1,而英国则是走草莓少女心路线,关于此点以后再慢慢吐槽。

Tool14. Prunts
Basically prunts are drops of molten glass applied freehand or impressed with a tool on glass vessels. Prunts were of various shaped and applied in patterns or haphazardly, usually to the lower two-thirds of the body. The German prunts, considered exceptional decorations, were frequently referred to as raspberries, while the wider and flatter English versions were called strawberries.

17.   工具十五,模具 吹制模具的诞生源自古老的中世纪。用于给华丽的高脚杯或轻薄器皿增加纹理。模具通常为实心的金属(以前多为铸铜,现在铸铝多一些)制成,内部有瓦楞状或者钻石状等等纹理。吹制工匠将整形成管状的热玻璃放在模具里轻吹充满内壁,就会在玻璃表面压上不同的肌理了。如果模具过于复杂,通常会制成两部分用合叶链接,以防止玻璃卡在模具里取不出来。  Tool15. Optic Molds Optic molds ( or optics), a fundamental tool in glassblowing, has been made in various forms since the middle ages. They are metal open ended tube molds that form ridges in the outside of glass. These ridges may be straight lines or diamond patterns. Most optics are solid, but those with complex patterns requires a hinged split to remove the glass. 

17.

工具十五,模具
吹制模具的诞生源自古老的中世纪。用于给华丽的高脚杯或轻薄器皿增加纹理。模具通常为实心的金属(以前多为铸铜,现在铸铝多一些)制成,内部有瓦楞状或者钻石状等等纹理。吹制工匠将整形成管状的热玻璃放在模具里轻吹充满内壁,就会在玻璃表面压上不同的肌理了。如果模具过于复杂,通常会制成两部分用合叶链接,以防止玻璃卡在模具里取不出来。

Tool15. Optic Molds
Optic molds ( or optics), a fundamental tool in glassblowing, has been made in various forms since the middle ages. They are metal open ended tube molds that form ridges in the outside of glass. These ridges may be straight lines or diamond patterns. Most optics are solid, but those with complex patterns requires a hinged split to remove the glass. 

18.   工具十六,可开合模具  大约在公元20年,古罗马玻璃工匠为了提高效率发明了能够持续使用的吹制模具。制模的材料多选为陶,木头或者金属等,同时根据复杂程度制成至少两部分的开合模具。这样热玻璃在模具中吹起来后可以打开,就算纹理再复杂玻璃也不会卡在模具里。当时生产的玻璃器皿上的图案通常都是以罗马民间故事,神话等等为主题,后来人们逐渐融入商业元素,开始有的商标,品牌图案的出现。  Tool16, Mold-Blown (two-parts mold) By about AD 20, Roman workers had discovered a mold of a durable material, usually baked clay and sometimes wood or metal. The mold comprised at least two parts, so that it could be opened and the finished product inside removed safely. Although the mold could be a simple undecorated square or round form, many were in fact quite intricately shaped and decorated. The designs were usually carved into the mold in negative, so that on the glass they appeared in relief.

18.

工具十六,可开合模具

大约在公元20年,古罗马玻璃工匠为了提高效率发明了能够持续使用的吹制模具。制模的材料多选为陶,木头或者金属等,同时根据复杂程度制成至少两部分的开合模具。这样热玻璃在模具中吹起来后可以打开,就算纹理再复杂玻璃也不会卡在模具里。当时生产的玻璃器皿上的图案通常都是以罗马民间故事,神话等等为主题,后来人们逐渐融入商业元素,开始有的商标,品牌图案的出现。

Tool16, Mold-Blown (two-parts mold)
By about AD 20, Roman workers had discovered a mold of a durable material, usually baked clay and sometimes wood or metal. The mold comprised at least two parts, so that it could be opened and the finished product inside removed safely. Although the mold could be a simple undecorated square or round form, many were in fact quite intricately shaped and decorated. The designs were usually carved into the mold in negative, so that on the glass they appeared in relief.

19.   工具十七,丈量工具们 任何器皿的制作都需要用到各式各样的丈量工具,所以在吹制工艺中,除了“派量器”(我随便翻的实在不知道怎么叫人家好。。。)比较特殊之外,另外几种其实和陶瓷木工等等都是通用的。向里弯的用来测外壁,向外弯的用来测内壁,这在做盖子或者量产统一大小的器皿的时候经常要用到。而“派量器”主要是用于Cane Roll-Up这种特殊工艺,通过圆周率的计算,直观的告诉大家吹管上所需玻璃的直径。  Tool 17, Calipers + Pi Divider Calipers: A divider or compass like tool of two arms off a pivot but commonly with curved arms that hook in or out and primarily used for measurement or comparison. Outward curving arms are used for inside measurements while inward are used for outside. When used for measurement, the distance across the tips is put against a scale. When used for comparison, an existing object is matched to the new one.   When it comes to things like cane pick-ups and roll-ups, well... you need a Pi Divider! Used to measure a straight length that will wrap around a circular shape. Usually made as a pair of curved jaws on one side of a pivot with straight divider arms on the other. 

19.

工具十七,丈量工具们
任何器皿的制作都需要用到各式各样的丈量工具,所以在吹制工艺中,除了“派量器”(我随便翻的实在不知道怎么叫人家好。。。)比较特殊之外,另外几种其实和陶瓷木工等等都是通用的。向里弯的用来测外壁,向外弯的用来测内壁,这在做盖子或者量产统一大小的器皿的时候经常要用到。而“派量器”主要是用于Cane Roll-Up这种特殊工艺,通过圆周率的计算,直观的告诉大家吹管上所需玻璃的直径。

Tool 17, Calipers + Pi Divider
Calipers: A divider or compass like tool of two arms off a pivot but commonly with curved arms that hook in or out and primarily used for measurement or comparison. Outward curving arms are used for inside measurements while inward are used for outside. When used for measurement, the distance across the tips is put against a scale. When used for comparison, an existing object is matched to the new one. 

When it comes to things like cane pick-ups and roll-ups, well... you need a Pi Divider! Used to measure a straight length that will wrap around a circular shape. Usually made as a pair of curved jaws on one side of a pivot with straight divider arms on the other. 

20.   工具十八,MAPP手持火枪 MAPP是甲基乙炔丙二烯的缩写……化学真可怕请不要问我这一大串都是什么(高一化学不及格的阴影历历在目)……咳咳,总之,这个手持的小火枪是温暖人心小天使一样的存在!除了加热局部做特殊处理或者还原玻璃颜色让其有金属光泽之外,最!重!要!的!就!是!加热冷掉的punty,以避免好不容易吹好的作品因为punty太冷炸裂让心血付之东流……不怕一万就怕万一,总之在吹到最后一定要谨慎小心才是~当然这种手持小火枪只适合小型作品,要是做大件作品就要换大枪,而做热塑则要用灯工那种热喷枪。  Tool18, MAPP Gas MAPP is an acronym for "MethylAcetylene-ProPadiene". The temperature of the flame is over 5,000 degrees Farenheit, so it is very hot. They provide a fair amount of heat which can be focused onto a relatively small area (such as a cold punty where it attaches to the piece you are working on). Also it can be used for reducing colors, to make certain colors of glass have a metallic shiny appearance. For larger works, we usually use Fluffy Torch (Gas Only) instead of MAPP Gas. And use Hot Torch (Gas+Propane) for hot sculpting works.

20.

工具十八,MAPP手持火枪
MAPP是甲基乙炔丙二烯的缩写……化学真可怕请不要问我这一大串都是什么(高一化学不及格的阴影历历在目)……咳咳,总之,这个手持的小火枪是温暖人心小天使一样的存在!除了加热局部做特殊处理或者还原玻璃颜色让其有金属光泽之外,最!重!要!的!就!是!加热冷掉的punty,以避免好不容易吹好的作品因为punty太冷炸裂让心血付之东流……不怕一万就怕万一,总之在吹到最后一定要谨慎小心才是~当然这种手持小火枪只适合小型作品,要是做大件作品就要换大枪,而做热塑则要用灯工那种热喷枪。

Tool18, MAPP Gas
MAPP is an acronym for "MethylAcetylene-ProPadiene". The temperature of the flame is over 5,000 degrees Farenheit, so it is very hot. They provide a fair amount of heat which can be focused onto a relatively small area (such as a cold punty where it attaches to the piece you are working on). Also it can be used for reducing colors, to make certain colors of glass have a metallic shiny appearance. For larger works, we usually use Fluffy Torch (Gas Only) instead of MAPP Gas. And use Hot Torch (Gas+Propane) for hot sculpting works.

21.   工具十九,千花钳 又是一个源自意大利语的名字,中文直译过来非常武侠,自然工艺本身也炫得一塌糊涂。千花顾名思义是指那些繁复的图案,是装饰感非常强的一种表现方法。在此顺便补充下关于cane的知识:cane指玻璃棒(或条),可以做成单色或拧成各种各样的花色,纵向排列后以侧面组成图案,多用于给吹制器皿增添纹样装饰。而另一种murrini则是指玻璃横截面的图案。制作过程其实有点像做糖,将彩色玻璃拼成图案扎成捆,再抻长成细棍儿,然后用我们这幅插图里面的钳子将他们截成小段。(个人认为左侧那个最好用!)  Tool19, Murrini cutter / Glass nipper All canes fall into one of two basic categories: 1) canes that were made to be viewed from the side, for example canes with a twisted lateral pattern; or 2) canes that were made to be viewed in cross-section, for example millefiore canes. The term millefiore means 1,000 flowers and is a type of murrini often used in paperweights. Murrini cutter (or Nippers) are like color cutter used for taking slices or chunks off a rod, but with murrini there is a need for more precision to preserve the image in the murrini and the losses must be low. Thus devices are air driven for a snap action with opposing hard shape edges.

21.

工具十九,千花钳
又是一个源自意大利语的名字,中文直译过来非常武侠,自然工艺本身也炫得一塌糊涂。千花顾名思义是指那些繁复的图案,是装饰感非常强的一种表现方法。在此顺便补充下关于cane的知识:cane指玻璃棒(或条),可以做成单色或拧成各种各样的花色,纵向排列后以侧面组成图案,多用于给吹制器皿增添纹样装饰。而另一种murrini则是指玻璃横截面的图案。制作过程其实有点像做糖,将彩色玻璃拼成图案扎成捆,再抻长成细棍儿,然后用我们这幅插图里面的钳子将他们截成小段。(个人认为左侧那个最好用!)

Tool19, Murrini cutter / Glass nipper
All canes fall into one of two basic categories: 1) canes that were made to be viewed from the side, for example canes with a twisted lateral pattern; or 2) canes that were made to be viewed in cross-section, for example millefiore canes. The term millefiore means 1,000 flowers and is a type of murrini often used in paperweights. Murrini cutter (or Nippers) are like color cutter used for taking slices or chunks off a rod, but with murrini there is a need for more precision to preserve the image in the murrini and the losses must be low. Thus devices are air driven for a snap action with opposing hard shape edges.

22.   工具二十,防护服 厚厚的宇宙人防护服,隔热又保温,穿起来也很呆萌~它在保护我们不会被烫到的同时也完成了安全将吹制作品送进退火炉的最后一个步骤!就像春晚最后的压轴金曲一样!作为退火集吹制工具系列的最后一幅插图,第一章的内容也要华丽丽的进退火炉里,暂时告一段落了。非常感谢大家的关注!看着关注人数慢慢在增多,觉得自己也是在做一件很有意义的事情!之后要开始陆续介绍其他工房的工具和工艺,打算先从铸造工作室开画!敬请期待啦!  Tool20, Protective Clothing When it comes to catch the blown work and put it into the annealer, the best way to protect yourself is suit up with the aluminized clothing to protect yourself from the heat. While gloves are the first line of defense when it comes to protecting our hands, cover mitts are used to protect the gloves and mitts from catching the works. As wearing the protective suit to put our works into the annealer is the last step of blowing, the first chapter of tuiglass illustration is also ready to "be annealed". Thanks so much for following my instagram! Makes me feel that I am doing something pretty significant! (Lol) Next chapter will focus on kiln tools and all sorts of random kiln stuff! Journey continuing to the next...! Woot Woot!

22.

工具二十,防护服
厚厚的宇宙人防护服,隔热又保温,穿起来也很呆萌~它在保护我们不会被烫到的同时也完成了安全将吹制作品送进退火炉的最后一个步骤!就像春晚最后的压轴金曲一样!作为退火集吹制工具系列的最后一幅插图,第一章的内容也要华丽丽的进退火炉里,暂时告一段落了。非常感谢大家的关注!看着关注人数慢慢在增多,觉得自己也是在做一件很有意义的事情!之后要开始陆续介绍其他工房的工具和工艺,打算先从铸造工作室开画!敬请期待啦!

Tool20, Protective Clothing
When it comes to catch the blown work and put it into the annealer, the best way to protect yourself is suit up with the aluminized clothing to protect yourself from the heat. While gloves are the first line of defense when it comes to protecting our hands, cover mitts are used to protect the gloves and mitts from catching the works. As wearing the protective suit to put our works into the annealer is the last step of blowing, the first chapter of tuiglass illustration is also ready to "be annealed". Thanks so much for following my instagram! Makes me feel that I am doing something pretty significant! (Lol) Next chapter will focus on kiln tools and all sorts of random kiln stuff! Journey continuing to the next...! Woot Woot!